The Human Body Maintenance System

The human body consists of organs and organ systems which work together to maintain both internal and external conditions of the body. The importance of the human body’s maintenance system is indeed very high. Individuals can easily get sick due to the imbalances of the internal conditions and different fluctuations that can occur anytime due to any cause. External conditions can greatly affect the internal conditions of the human body especially when the immune system or other systems work inefficiently within the human body. There are several factors causing these changes and fluctuations. However, the human body tries its best to maintain the right condition or the dynamic equilibrium (which is around 37 degrees Celsius).

The basic maintenance system works with blood vessels, tissues, and tissue fluids as they are important factors to regulate changes in the body condition. By adding or removing the substances from blood vessels, tissues, and tissue fluids, the five main body systems work effectively to reach dynamic equilibrium.

The Five Main Systems

One of the most important systems is the lymphatic system. The system works by protecting blood cells from contracting all kinds of diseases. The respiratory system consists of the lungs. The lungs are responsible for the breathing process which requires the intake of Oxygen and the removal of Carbon Dioxide. The digestive system consists of the standard organs like the stomach, the intestines, gallbladder, liver, and other accessory organs which include: mouth, teeth, tongue, the salivary gland, and the esophagus. The digestive system mainly accepts the intake of food and has the ability to digest them into nutrients and substances the body needs. It is important to know all organs and parts play major roles in each system. For example, the saliva plays an important role in the first step of digestion. Because it contains an enzyme called Amylase, which breaks down starch into sugar, the digestive system is able to work efficiently in process as it then sends the food substances to the stomach then to the intestines to continue the process. The last system which helps in maintaining the body’s equilibrium is the urinary system. The urinary system helps to maintain the body’s temperature as it gets rid of nitrogenous wastes, helps regulate the fluid level, and maintain the chemical content of blood in the body. The urinary system generally flushes out wastes not needed by the human body. The system consists of the urinary bladder and the kidneys.

Reproduction and Development

The reproduction process of human beings is as similar as birth processes of other organisms. Through the natural process which requires help from both female and male organs located around the pubic area, humans reproduce and is able to develop future generations. The female reproduction system consists of the ovary, the vagina, the uterine tube, and the external genitalia. The male reproductive system includes the testis and the penis. The testis is where the conduction of semen starts where it then sends the sperms out through the penis.

Looking Deeper into Homeostasis

Homeostasis is basically the maintenance of the human body’s dynamic equilibrium. To maintain the right condition of the human body, there are several requirements.

The body needs to reach dynamic equilibrium as explained in the earlier paragraphs. If any rapid change occurs within the body, the organs and the systems have to work together through two methods: negative feedback and positive feedback. These two methods will allow adaptation to occur through primary homeostatic mechanism which includes the sensor, the control center, and the effecter.

Negative Feedback

The negative feedback generally works by disabling the sensor which is activated in the beginning of the adaptation process. Once the temperature in the body has changed or if any other substances unknown to the human body enter the system, the sensor activates itself. Once the sensor activates itself, it sends signals to the control center which will awake the effecter to make its move in the infected area or problem. The sensor, though, is to be deactivated once the signals were sent to the effecter; this is mainly the reason why the whole process is called the negative feedback. To make things simpler, compare the negative feedback with the process of photosynthesis in plants. Once the high level of carbon dioxide is detected by the sensor, it sends signals to the control center which allows more light to be taken up in the process as the intake of carbon is too high. The effecter makes several changes while the sensor already deactivates itself.

The Positive Feedback

The positive feedback is the total opposite of the negative feedback as the difference is that the sensor remains active throughout the process. The positive feedback mainly has the intention to push levels out of normal ranges and thereby increase the stimulus. The easiest way to illustrate positive feedback would be when blood platelet accumulation occurs in the body. Blood platelet accumulation occurs and causes blood clots in the infected area due to a cut or a tear in the lining of blood vessels. Also, during childbirth, the release of Oxytocin that helps intensify contractions is one of the best examples to illustrate positive feedback. Once Oxytocin is released during contractions, the sensor that releases the Oxytocin still does not stop or deactivates as the process still needs to support and safeguard the mother with similar substance during heavy bleed.

Source by Kawintida Sujindaporn

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